on European Nuclear Non-Proliferation (PENN)
c/o BITS · Rykestr. 13 · D-10405 Berlin · Germany · Phone: +49-30-446858-0 · Fax: +49-30-4410221
This is the first edition of PENNs Newsletter, published every 3-4 months. It will provide you with information on the current activities of the PENN-project and its partners as well as offer some opportunities for your participation. This includes the Newsletter itself, as we appreciate very much every contribution or comment.
Most of you recently received a presentation of PENN and the invitation to create a network for a debate on the future of European nuclear arms. In case you did not get it, please let us know! Our letter contained a questionnaire on your interest in PENNs work. We kindly ask all the people who have not yet filled in and sent us a questionnaire to do so. As we have to care for our capacities and resources, the second edition of the Newsletter will only be sent out to those who replied!
Best wishes & and a peaceful New Year from the BITS-team.
The Project on European Nuclear Non-proliferation (PENN)" has been set up by the
Berlin Information-center for Transatlantic Security (BITS) and its partners:
Reports and Current Activities p. 1
Publications p. 2
Partners p. 4
Diary p. 4
Reports and Current Activities
PENN-network meetings in Brussels and Berlin
On September 20/21, 1996 PENN-partners (see below) and cooperating groups convened in Brussels for a first meeting of the projects network. The meeting was held to discuss future research topics, strategy and tactics to influence politics in different European countries, the function and political aims of PENN and a workshare model within PENN.
The participants agreed on a broad research agenda, which includes current and historical aspects of European Nuclear Weapons". PENN is undertaking efforts to inquire about national positions on the future role of NWs in European security. This includes asking EU member states governments about their position on these problems as well compiling party and parliamentary opinions. International discussions about these subjects in NATO, EU, the IGC-framework, and the Franco-British NW-talks are monitored. Independent research is being conducted on the political and military aspects of NWs, such as the number and locations of the remaining NWs as well as their role in strategies, counterproliferation and crisis-management.
It is a political aim of PENN to advance the idea that the EU should become a non-nuclear member to the NPT. This implies that French and British NW would be abolished. One important step towards this goal would be if the IGC, EP and member states would state that the EU should closely adhere to Art. I and II of the NPT, thus avoiding the development of a "slippery slope" into a nuclear-armed EU. The division of labor and the tasks of the participating organizations & individuals is mentioned below (see partners).
A second PENN-network meeting took place in Berlin on December 8th, 1996. PENN-members reported on progress made on different aspects of the project. The meeting was also used to discuss the involvement of the network in political events such as the EU-summit in Amsterdam in June 1997 and the involvement in the Stadtschlaining conference, which is taking place the same month. (U.T.)
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Parliamentary Questions and EP-resolution
BITS has compiled a set of questions which can be used to ask parliamentary questions in order to get the governments in all EU-member states on the record in respect to their positions about the future role of nuclear weapons in Europe. BITS is trying to find additional people who help to introduce these questions into the national parliaments. If you can help getting contact to Members of Parliament who might support such questions, please let us know!
An outline of a resolution to be introduced into the European Parliament has been drafted. (U.T.)
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The European Members of the "Abolition 2000"-Campaign are preparing a conference on a "Nuclear Weapons-free Europe" on June 27-29, 1997 in Stadtschlaining/Austria. BITS participates in the preparatory meetings and coordinates the involvement of PENN. We will make sure you get an invitation as soon as the program is ready. (U.T.)
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Workshop on The Future of Nuclear Weapons in European Security"
On December 7th and 8th, more than 30 experts from 10 European countries and the US met in Berlin to discuss the Future of Nuclear Weapons in European Security. The conference had been organized by BITS in cooperation with the Stiftungsverband Regenbogen/ Heinrich-Böll-Foundation.
During the two days of the meeting participants, which included representatives of more than a dozen NGOs, politicians, and the media, discussed a broad range of topics. A summary of current and planned nuclear postures and doctrines showed that the nuclear weapon states are still not willing to consider meaningful steps towards a nuclear weapons-free world. Most participants agreed, that disarmament measures that have taken place so far did not go far enough.
Discussions about the role of nuclear weapons in the process of European integration and NATO-enlargement were very vivid. Different national approaches towards these problems became obvious: whereas some argued that nuclear weapons do not play an essential role in European security anymore and have outlived themselves, others maintained that these weapons simply have become less visible, but will continue to be a decisive factor in European security. Whether these different national approaches towards nuclear weapons are an obstacle or opportunity in the process of creating a safer Europe, remained an open question.
Prospects for new nuclear disarmament steps were debated as well. All speakers emphasized the importance of continuing the START-process, but other ways to lessen the nuclear threat were also discussed. There was broad agreement that new disarmament steps should not be made dependent upon START II-ratification in Moscow. Finally, there was a controversial discussion about the usefulness and legality of including a nuclear component in the European Unions Common Foreign and Security Policy.
A reader, containing short drafts of the presentations given at the conference will soon be available through BITS. (O.M.)
Publications by PENN-members
NATO Nuclear Strategies in 1996: 200 US-Nukes Remain in Europe
The United States in all probability deploys many fewer nuclear warheads in Europe than previously assumed. The British American Security Information Council (BASIC) and the Berlin Information Center (BITS) obtained information which indicates that the official NATO-number of 700 US-nuclear weapons remaining in Europe is no longer valid.
Among the information pointing at the number of 200 nuclear warheads is a press-release by the US Air Force, which forecloses details about a modernization program for nuclear weapons storage sites in NATO-countries. 208 so-called Weapons Storage and Security System"-vaults are to be installed on 13 airbases in seven-NATO-countries (Germany, UK, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Greece, Turkey). Germany still has the largest capacity to host foreign nuclear weapons. It is very likely that Ramstein and Buechel airbases still host B-61 free-falling bombs, which is the only type of US-nuclear weapon remaining in Europe.
The US Air Force accidentally revealed a British secret when it issued a press-release which stated that nuclear weapons-vaults have been installed at Royal Air Force airbases in Marham (UK) and Brueggen (Germany). The US-airbase in Lakenheath (UK) probably hosts tactical nuclear weapons as well. Other European bases, at which nuclear weapons could be stationed are: Kleine Brogel (Belgium), Volkel (Netherlands), Aviano & Ghedi-Torre (Italy), Araxos (Greece), Incirlik, Murted & Balikesir (Turkey). These adaptations of nuclear posture are compatible with changes in the nuclear doctrine of NATO, which are contained in the document MC 400/1, approved at the NATO council meeting in June 1996 in Berlin.
The Research Note U.S. Nuclear NATO Arsenals 1996" can be obtained through BASIC or BITS. (O.M.)
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Breaking the Disarmament Deadlock: Next START by CART
BITS has developed an outline for a way out of the current political deadlock in strategic nuclear disarmament. The Comprehensive nuclear Disarmament Talks" (CART) would involve all five declared nuclear weapon-states (NWS) and have the goal of moving towards existential deterrence postures in the NWS. It would achieve this goal in a phased-process of reductions across the whole spectrum of nuclear weapons. By starting such talks as soon as possible major obstacles to a continuation of the START-process, such as opposition to START II-ratification in Russia could be overcome.
The concept was presented at a Pugwash meeting in London in October and at an international workshop on nuclear weapons in Berlin in December 1996. A detailed version of the proposal is available through BITS. (O.M.)
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Research note on Concerted Deterrence
A research note on the history of French proposals to extend its nuclear deterrence to cover its European allies and Germany in the first place, as well as to share control over nuclear weapons, has been published by BITS. The issue was highlighted in 1995, when French Prime Minister Juppé spoke of concerted deterrence (dissuasion concertée). According to him, French deterrence also benefits its neighbours. Before, France had come under heavy international fire for resuming nuclear testing. Under pressure, French politicians tried to counter severe international criticism and to align its European allies, 10 out of which had voted for a UN-resolution condemning French nuclear tests. The research note says the concerted deterrence does not offer new elements, compared to what has been said since the 60s. It only offers nuclear protection, as an alternative to the US-guaranty. So far, a majority of German politicians has not shown a high interest. (H.B.)
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Article in Défense
The December issue of Défense, revue of the "Institut des Hautes Études de Défense Nationale" (Paris), will contain an article on the German perception of recent French military reforms, entitled Défense: LAllemagne et les réformes françaises. Lentente difficile" and written by PENNs Harald Bauer. Behind problems on the lack of consultations before French decisions were taken, the article is arguing, there are more far-reaching points of debate. Beyond Franco-German communication problems, there are aspects which also touch the future Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) of the European Union. Because there are differences in foreign policy approaches. Germany, in contrast to Britain and France, does not have a consensus as to foreign policy goals and methods. The government is still following the pre-fall-of-the-wall politics of keeping at pace with the powerful allies to be accepted as a wholesome partner. To date there is no clear-cut decision whether Germany should follow the line of France and Britain or whether it is more suitable to join the Scandinavian line of conflict prevention and peacekeeping. A clear German decision for one or the other option will have major consequences for the EUs CFSP. Is it going to be interventionist? Or will it emphasise conflict prevention and concomitant elements? Is it to have a nuclear component, formed by British and French weapons? Would this be an infraction of the NPT?
All these questions remain open and we need to put some impetus in order to create a debate on them. (H.B.)
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Other publications by PENN-members:
AMOK: Euronuke Bulletin", No.1, Utrecht: September 1996.
BASIC: Nuclear Futures: The Role of Nuclear Weapons in Security Policy", London/ Washington: BASIC Report 96.1, April 1996.
--: The Role of British Nuclear Weapons after the Cold War", London/Washington: BASIC Report 95.1, November 1995.
--: From Deterrence to Denuking- Les Aspin and new Thinking on Nuclear Weapons, London/Washington: BASIC-Report 93.4
--: The U.K. Trident Programme. Secrecy and Dependence in the 1990s", London/ Washington: BASIC Report 93.5, September 1993.
--: French Nuclear Policy Since the Fall of the Wall", London/Washington: BASIC Report 93.1, 1993.
BITS: NATO Nuclear Strategies 1996, Berlin: October 1996.
CESD: Nuclear Weapons in the European Union", Brussels, Issues in European Security No. 5, May 1996.
CESD/BASIC: NATO Expansion - Time to Reconsider", Brussels/London: Issues on International Security No. 6, November 1996.
Anti-Militaristies Onderzoekskollectief (AMOK)
Karel Koster and Huub Jaspers
NL-3531 AJ Utrecht / Netherlands
Phone: +31-30-2442122; Fax: +31-30-2441783
AMOK is publishing a regular newsletter, consisting of clippings from news and background material and aimed primarily at Dutch audience but distributed internationally; they will be responsible for planning and conducting the Amsterdam events in June 1997 (see calendar)
Berlin Information Centre for Transatlantic Security (BITS)
Harald Bauer, Oliver Meier, Otfried Nassauer
(address on top of page 1)
BITS will serve as the secretariat of PENN and as the networks clearing-house; coordinate PENNs work and schedule; distribute material & information on a regular basis for the core group and interested people; participate in the research of open questions; write research reports on national positions as well as Euronukes and the NPT-compatibility; facilitate parliamentary questions and draft a resolution for the EP.
British-American Security Information Council
Nicola Butler/D.Plesch Stephen Young
1900 L St NW Carrara House
Suite 401 8 Embankment Place
Washington, DC 20036 London WC2N6NN
USA United Kingdom
Phone: +1-202-7851266 Ph: +44-171-9250862
Fax: +1-202-3876298 Fax: +44-171-9250861
BASIC will concentrate on the UN/US/ European triangle (e.g. in the NPT- and START-III contexts); participate in the necessary research; help to develop strategy working in both the US and European political cultures.
Center for European Security and Disarmament
Martin Butcher and Sharon Riggle
115 Rue Stevin
B-1040 Bruxelles / Belgium
Phone: +32-2-2300732; Fax: +32-2-2302467
CESD will continue IGC-monitoring and coordinate work with and lobbying in institutions in Brussels (EP/NATO/WEU etc); participate in some research topics; CESD will push "Joint actions" on nuclear arms control.
Martin Kalinowski and Wolfgang Liebert
c/o Institut für Kernphysik
64289 Darmstadt / Germany
IANUS is a member of INESAP. IANUS and INESAP publish an "Information Bulletin" on a wide range of nuclear disarmament topics.
Swedish Peace and Arbitration Society (SPAS)
S-10263 Stockholm / Sweden
Phone: +46-8-7021830; Fax: +46-8-7021846
Science et Vie
29, Rue de Chemin Vert
75011 Paris / France
Phone: +33-1-46484925; Fax: +33-1-46484867
Untere Donaulaende 18/8
A-4020 Linz / Austria
Phone: +43-3355-2498; Fax: +43-3355-2662
S. de Presse
1 Palais de Nations
CH-1211 Geneva 10 / Switzerland
Phone: +41-22-7342361; Fax: +41-22-7342361
In the next issue of the Newsletter we will introduce organizations that are working on PENN-related topics.
Early 1997, Conference on Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Central Europe". Contact: IPPNW Netherlands, Bosschastraat 17, NL-3514 HN Utrecht, Ph.: +31-30-722940.
April 18-20, 1997, Buechel, Germany: Civil Inspection" of the Nuclear Weapons Depot of the German Air Force, Buechel. Preparatory Meeting on January 31 - February 2, 1997. Contact: Gewaltfreie Aktion Atomwaffen Abschaffen", Bebelstr. 24, D-70806 Kornwestheim, Tel.: +49-7154-22026.
April 1997, New York: NPT-PrepCom seminar. Special emphasis on European dimension of NPT. Contact: CESD.
June 1997, Amsterdam: Workshop on Euronukes / IGC shadow conference, Contact: AMOK, NL.
June 27-29, 1997, Stadtschlaining/Austria, European groups in Abolition 2000 campaign: Conference on "Nuclear Weapon-free Europe". Contact: Reiner Braun, c/o INES, Gutenbergstr. 31, D-44139 Dortmund, Tel.: +49-231-575202, Fax: +49-231-575210.