The Foreign and Defence Ministers
of WEU member States met in Bonn on 19 June 1992 and issued the Petersberg
Declaration consisting of the following three parts:
I. On WEU and European Security
II. On strengthening WEU's operational
III. On relations between WEU and
the other European member States of the European Union or the Atlantic
I. ON WEU AND EUROPEAN SECURITY
Developments in the security situation
in Europe, disarmament and arms control
Ministers reviewed the significant changes
that had taken place in the security situation in Europe since their last
regular meeting in November 1991. They emphasized the importance of strengthening
the role and institutions of the CSCE for peace and security in Europe.
They looked forward to decisions at Helsinki to start new negotiations
on measures of arms control and disarmament and to enhance regular consultations
and cooperation on security matters. In the light of the establishment
of a new CSCE Forum for Security Cooperation, they considered that decisions
to enhance the CSCE's capabilities for conflict prevention, crisis management
and the peaceful settlement of disputes are of primary importance. They
supported the proposal under discussion at the Helsinki Follow-up meeting
for the CSCE to declare itself as a regional arrangement under Chapter
VIII of the United Nations Charter. Ministers considered that the CSCE
should have the authority to initiate and pursue peacekeeping operations
under its own responsibility.
As WEU develops its operational capabilities
in accordance with the Maastricht Declaration, we are prepared to support,
on a case-by-case basis and in accordance with our own procedures, the
effective implementation of conflict-prevention and crisis-management measures,
including peacekeeping activities of the CSCE or the United Nations Security
Council. This will be done without prejudice to possible contributions
by other CSCE countries and other organisations to these activities.
Ministers welcomed the decisions taken
by the CSCE Council in Berlin and Prague regarding the relationships between
the CSCE and other mutually reinforcing European and transatlantic organizations
including WEU. They declared that WEU, together with the European Union,
was ready to play a full part in building up Europe's security architecture.
They likewise reaffirmed their conviction that the Atlantic Alliance is
one of the indispensable foundations of Europe's security. They welcomed
the ongoing reform process of NATO with a view to establishing a strong
new transatlantic partnership.
Ministers welcomed the agreement reached
at the CFE Extraordinary Conference on 5 June 1992 in Oslo which provides
the basis for the entry into force of the CFE Treaty which has been and
remains a major objective of their arms control agenda. Its full and effective
implementation will increase stability and open the way to a new cooperative
security order in Europe. They call upon the new States parties to the
Treaty to ensure its ratification by the time of the CSCE Summit in Helsinki.
Ministers attach great importance to the conclusion of an agreement on
the limitation of personnel strengths of ground and air forces (CFE 1a)
in time for the Helsinki Summit and to the implementation of the Open Skies
Treaty. They reaffirmed their commitment to the early entry into force
of the Open Skies agreement and invited other CSCE States to accede to
the Treaty in accordance with its provisions.
Ministers welcomed steps recently taken
by the States concerned to allow for the entry into force of the START
Treaty and the important agreement on further strategic reductions reached
between the United States and Russia in Washington on 17 June 1992.
Ministers recalled that the presence
of foreign forces on the territory of a sovereign state requires the explicit
consent of that state. They stressed the importance of rapidly establishing,
in the negotiations under way, timetables for the withdrawal of foreign
troops from the territory of the Baltic States.
Ministers expressed their conviction
that a Chemical Weapons Convention can be reached within the next few months.
They are confident that this Convention can play an important and pioneering
role in worldwide multilateral arms control and call on all member States
of the Conference on Disarmament to lend their support to the emerging
consensus. They repeat their commitment to be among the original signatories
of this Convention and ask all other nations to follow this course.
WEU member States reaffirmed their resolution
to contribute further to the establishment of a new order of peace in Europe
which, in accordance with the Charter of Paris, will be based on cooperation.
Ministers underlined the valuable contribution of NACC in this connection.
In the same spirit, WEU has invited the Foreign and Defence Ministers of
eight States of Central Europe to a special Ministerial meeting later today.
WEU and the invited countries intend to enhance consultation and cooperation
in the framework of the new European security structure.
Implementation of the Maastricht
Ministers stressed the fundamental importance
of the Treaty on European Union and they looked forward to the further
elaboration of the common foreign and security policy at the Lisbon European
Council. They discussed the progress made in developing the role of WEU
as the defence component of the European Union and as the means to strengthen
the European pillar of the Atlantic Alliance in accordance with the Declaration
adopted by WEU member States at the Maastricht European Council in December
Ministers reaffirmed the importance
for WEU to develop close working relations with the European Union and
Atlantic Alliance in accordance with the Maastricht Declaration of WEU.
They adopted a report on the practical measures necessary for WEU to develop
these relations. They asked the Permanent Council to propose to the Council
of the Twelve and to the North Atlantic Council concrete measures aimed
at facilitating the development of close cooperation between the respective
Ministers heard a report from the Secretary-General
on the progress made towards the transfer of the WEU Council and Secretariat-General
from London to Brussels. They instructed the Permanent Council and Secretary-General
to expedite the necessary arrangements so that the transfer could become
effective by January 1993.
Ministers heard a report from the German
Chief of Defence Staff on the meetings of Chiefs of Defence Staff. Ministers
agreed that the Chiefs of Defence Staff should meet twice a year prior
to the regular Ministerial Councils and on an ad hoc basis whenever necessary.
Ministers also agreed that, following the transfer of the Council and Secretariat
to Brussels, national delegations could be reinforced with military delegates
to develop and provide advice for the Council, to introduce the views of
the Chiefs of Defence Staff to the Planning Cell and to monitor the professional
standards of the Planning Cell's work.
WEU Ministers welcomed the IEPG Defence
Ministers' decision, at their Oslo meeting on 6 March 1992, to analyse
the future role of the IEPG in the new European security architecture.
This represents a positive development fully in line with the objective
set by WEU member States in Maastricht further to examine enhanced cooperation
in the field of armaments with the aim of creating a WEU European Armaments
Agency. WEU Ministers propose that both WEU and IEPG experts analyse this
issue in depth, carry out an initial examination of the role and functions
of a possible European Armaments Agency and submit a report for consideration.
WEU Ministers welcomed the decision
of Eurogroup Defence Ministers at their meeting in Brussels on 25 May 1992
to consider the possibility, among other options, and if the necessary
preconditions are met, of transferring to WEU some or all of Eurogroup's
present functions for which there is still a need.
Ministers noted with satisfaction the
considerable progress which had been made in setting up the experimental
WEU Satellite Centre in TorrejÛn (Spain), a concrete example of the
strengthening of WEU's operational role, and they looked forward to the
official inauguration which would take place later in the year. They also
noted that the contract for the main system feasibility study had been
awarded to a consortium of firms from WEU member States led by a German
Activities of Working Groups
In the field of verification, Ministers
noted with satisfaction that a set of rules for the operation of multinational
teams in CFE had been prepared in WEU and had subsequently been adopted
in the Alliance. This represented the first example since the Maastricht
Declaration of the introduction of joint positions agreed in WEU into the
process of consultation in the Alliance.
Noting the progress which had been made
so far, Ministers agreed in principle to a feasibility study to identify
the most cost-effective means of implementing the Open Skies Treaty cooperatively
among member States. They tasked the group of experts to agree assumptions
for the study, to identify the options which merit further study and to
consider the question of costs, with a view to taking a decision at their
next ordinary meeting to proceed with the study. They stressed the readiness
of WEU to cooperate with third parties at a later stage, and in this context
welcomed the contacts which had taken place with other European allies,
as well as with the Russian Federation. They agreed that experts should
investigate the possibilities for intensified cooperation with the Russian
Federation, which could include a joint feasibility study and/or a trial
Ministers reaffirmed the importance
of the Mediterranean Sub-Group's work on security in the Mediterranean.
They adopted terms of reference for the establishment by WEU of a gradual
and phased dialogue with the Maghreb countries, taking into account the
political developments both in these countries and in the region.
WEU Institute for Security
Ministers noted with satisfaction the
activities of the WEU Institute for Security Studies in Paris. Its publications,
seminars and colloquia had greatly contributed to deepening understanding
for the ongoing development of a European security identity and to enhancing
relations between WEU and other European countries.
II. ON STRENGTHENING WEU'S
In accordance with the decision contained
in the Declaration of the member States of WEU at Maastricht on 10 December
1991 to develop WEU as the defence component of the European Union and
as the means to strengthen the European pillar of the Atlantic Alliance,
WEU member States have been examining and defining appropriate missions,
structures and means covering, in particular, a WEU planning cell and military
units answerable to WEU, in order to strengthen WEU's operational role.
WEU member States declare that they
are prepared to make available military units from the whole spectrum of
their conventional armed forces for military tasks conducted under the
authority of WEU.
Decisions to use military units answerable
to WEU will be taken by the WEU Council in accordance with the provisions
of the UN Charter. Participation in specific operations will remain a sovereign
decision of member States in accordance with national constitutions.
Apart from contributing to the common
defence in accordance with Article 5 of the Washington Treaty and Article
V of the modified Brussels Treaty respectively, military units of WEU member
States, acting under the authority of WEU, could be employed for:
humanitarian and rescue tasks;
tasks of combat forces in crisis management,
The planning and execution of these
tasks will be fully compatible with the military dispositions necessary
to ensure the collective defence of all Allies.
Military units will be drawn from the
forces of WEU member States, including forces with NATO missions - in this
case after consultation with NATO - and will be organized on a multinational
and multi-service basis.
All WEU member States will soon designate
which of their military units and headquarters they would be willing to
make available to WEU for its various possible tasks. Where multinational
formations drawn from the forces of WEU nations already exist or are planned,
these units could be made available for use under the authority of WEU,
with agreement of all participating nations.
WEU member States intend to develop
and exercise the appropriate capabilities to enable the deployment of WEU
military units by land, sea or air to accomplish these tasks.
A Planning Cell will be established
on 1 October 1992, subject to practical considerations, under the authority
of the Council. It will be located with the Secretariat-General in a suitable
building in Brussels. The Council has today appointed Maj.Gen. Caltabiano
(Italian Air Force) as its first Director. The Planning Cell will be responsible
preparing contingency plans for the
employment for forces under WEU auspices;
preparing recommendations for the necessary
command, control and communication arrangements, including standing operating
procedures for headquarters which might be selected;
keeping an updated list of units and
combinations of units which might be allocated to WEU for specific operations.
The Council of Ministers approved the
terms of reference for the Planning Cell.
III. ON RELATIONS BETWEEN
WEU AND THE OTHER EUROPEAN MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION OR THE ATLANTIC
A. Following the Declaration released
in Maastricht on 10 December 1991 in connection with the Treaty on European
Union, WEU Ministers recalled the fundamental principles on which relations
between member States and associate member States should be based:
settlement of their mutual differences
by peaceful means, in accordance with the obligations resulting from the
modified Brussels Treaty, the North Atlantic Treaty and the United Nations
Charter, the commitments entered into under the terms of the Helsinki Final
Act and the Paris Charter, and the other generally recognized principles
and rules of international law.
in their mutual relations, refraining
from resorting to the threat or use of force, in accordance with the United
They also stressed that the security
guarantees and defence commitments in the Treaties which bind the member
States within Western European Union and which bind them within the Atlantic
Alliance are mutually reinforcing and will not be invoked by those subscribing
to Part III of the Petersberg Declaration in disputes between member States
of either of the two organizations.
B. In their Maastricht Declaration
of 10 December 1991, the member States of WEU proposed that States which
are members of the European Union be invited to accede to WEU on conditions
to be agreed in accordance with Article XI of the modified Brussels Treaty,
or to become observers if they so wished. Simultaneously, other European
member States of NATO were invited to become associate members of WEU in
a way which would give them a possibility of participating fully in the
activities of WEU.
In accordance with Part III of the
Petersberg Declaration, Ministers agreed that the following points should
be made in extending the invitation to the countries interested in becoming
members, observers or associate members:
Member States of the European Union
which have accepted the invitation to accede to WEU undertake
to respect, in accordance with the principles
and values adhered to by all WEU member States, the Brussels Treaty of
1948, modified on 23 October 1954, its Protocols and associated texts,
and the agreements concluded among the member States pursuant to the Treaty,
to note with approval the agreements,
decisions and rules adopted in conformity with the Treaty, and the Declarations
starting with the Rome Declaration of 27 October 1984,
to develop WEU as the defence component
of the European Union and as the means to strengthen the European pillar
of the Atlantic Alliance in keeping with the obligation entered into on
10 December 1991 in the Declaration on the role of WEU and its relations
with the European Union and with the Atlantic Alliance attached to the
Treaty on European Union, and
to accept in full the substance of Part
III of the Petersberg Declaration which will form part of the Protocol
Member States of the European Union,
which have accepted the invitation to become observers,
may, although not being a party to the
MBT, attend the meetings of the WEU Council without prejudice to the provisions
laid down in Article VIII of the modified Brussels Treaty; at the request
of a majority of the member States, or of half of the member States including
the Presidency, presence at Council meetings may be restricted to full
may be invited to meetings of working
may be invited, on request, to speak;
will have the same rights and responsibilities
as the full members for functions transferred to WEU from other fora and
institutions to which they already belong.
Other European member States of
the Atlantic Alliance which have accepted the invitation to become associate
members of WEU, although not being parties to the modified Brussels Treaty,
may participate fully in the meetings of the WEU Council - without prejudice
to the provisions laid down in Article VIII of the modified Brussels Treaty
- of its working groups and of the subsidiary bodies, subject to the following
at the request of a majority of the
member States, or of half of the member States including the Presidency,
participation may be restricted to full members;
they will be able to be associated to
the Planning Cell through a permanent liaison arrangement;
they will have the same rights and responsibilities
as the full members for functions transferred to WEU from other fora and
institutions to which they already belong;
they will have the right to speak but
may not block a decision that is the subject of consensus among the member
they may associate themselves with the
decisions taken by member States; they will be able to participate in their
implementation unless a majority of the member States, or half of the member
States including the Presidency, decide otherwise;
they will take part on the same basis
as full members in WEU military operations to which they commit forces;
they will accept in full the substance
of Section A of Part III of the Petersberg Declaration which will form
part of the association document;
they will be connected to the member
States' telecommunications system (WEUCOM) for messages concerning meetings
and activities in which they participate;
they will be asked to make a financial
contribution to the Organization's budgets.
For practical reasons, space activities
will be restricted to the present members until the end of the experimental
phase of the Satellite Centre in 1995. During this phase the new members
and associate members will be kept informed of WEU's space activities.
Appropriate arrangements will be made for associate members to participate
in subsequent space activities at the same time as decisions are taken
on the continuation of such activities.
Ministers mandated the Permanent
Council to arrange for discussions to start with the States concerned.
Ministers confirmed their wish to
conclude the necessary agreements before 31 December 1992.