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C. Common European Security and Defence Policy
Presidency Report on Strengthening the Common European Security and Defence
Arrangements to be concluded by the Council on Modalities of Consultation
and/or participation that will allow the non-EU European NATO Members and
other countries which are candidates dor accession to the EU to contribute
to EU military crisis management
Principles dor Consultation with NATO on military issues and recommendations
on developing modalities for EU/NATO relations
Study on concrete targets on Civilian Aspects of Crisis Management
Concrete Targets for Police
Common European Security and Defence Policy
The European Council reaffirms its commitment
to building a Common European Security and Defence Policy capable of reinforcing
the Union's external action through the development of a military crisis
management capability as well as a civilian one, in full respect of the
principles of the United Nations Charter.
The European Council welcomes the Presidency
report endorsed by the Council on "Strengthening the Common European Policy
on Security and Defence" and associated documents (cf. Annex I).
Satisfactory progress has been made in fulfilment of the Helsinki mandate
on both the military and the civilian aspects of crisis management. In
this context, the European Council notes the progressive development of
the interim Political and Security Committee and the interim military bodies
established at Helsinki.
Improving European military capabilities
remains central to the credibility and effectiveness of the Common European
Security and Defence Policy. The European Council is determined to meet
the Headline Goal targets in 2003 as agreed in Helsinki. In this context,
it looks forward to the Capabilities Commitment Conference later this year,
where Member States will make initial national commitments, and to the
creation of a review mechanism for measuring progress towards the achievement
of those targets. The necessary transparency and dialogue between the Union
and NATO will be ensured and NATO expertise will be sought on capability
Principles and modalities for arrangements
have been identified to allow non-EU European NATO members and other EU
accession candidates to contribute to EU military crisis management. Principles
for consultation with NATO on military issues and modalities for developing
EU-NATO relations have also been identified in four areas covering security
issues, capability goals, the modalities for EU access to NATO assets,
and the definition of permanent consultation arrangements.
Contributions are invited from all partner
third states to the improvement of European capabilities. The European
Council welcomes the offers made by Turkey, Norway, Poland and the Czech
Republic, which will expand the range of capabilities available for EU-led
The European Council welcomes the setting-up
and first meeting of the committee for civilian aspects of crisis management,
as well as the identification of priority areas for targets in civilian
aspects of crisis management and of specific targets for civilian police
capabilities. In this respect Member States, cooperating voluntarily, have
undertaken that by 2003 they will to be able to provide up to 5,000 police
officers for international missions across the range of conflict prevention
and crisis management operations. Member States have also undertaken to
be able to identify and deploy up to 1,000 police officers within 30 days.
The European Council also welcomes the willingness of the Commission to
contribute to civilian crisis management within its spheres of action.
The European Council underlines the
Union's determination in its approach to conflict prevention and crisis
management to assume fully its Petersberg task responsibilities as referred
to in Helsinki. It invites the incoming Presidency together with the Secretary
General/High Representative to carry work forward within the General Affairs
Council, in accordance with the mandates referred to in the Presidency
report, and to submit an overall Presidency report to the European Council
in Nice. The permanent political and military structures should be put
in place as soon as possible after Nice.
PRESIDENCY REPORT ON STRENGTHENING
THE COMMON EUROPEAN SECURITY AND DEFENCE POLICY
MILITARY ASPECTS OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT
In Cologne, the European Council expressed
its resolve that the EU should play its full role on the international
stage and that to that end the EU should be provided with all the necessary
means and capabilities to assume its responsibilities regarding a common
European policy on security and defence. Since Cologne, the European Union
has been engaged in a process aiming at building the necessary means and
capabilities which will allow it to take decisions on, and to carry out,
the full range of conflict prevention and crisis management tasks defined
in the Treaty on European Union ("Petersberg tasks"). These developments
are an integral part of the enhancement of the Common Foreign and Security
Policy and are based on the principles set out in Helsinki. The
Union will contribute to international peace and security in accordance
with the principles of the United Nations Charter.
Having approved the two Finnish Presidency
progress reports on military and non-military aspects of crisis management,
including the common European headline goal and the collective capabilities
goals, the European Council in Helsinki asked the Portuguese Presidency,
together with the Secretary-General/High Representative, to carry work
forward in the General Affairs Council on all aspects, as a matter of priority.
The Portuguese Presidency was invited to draw up a first progress report
to the Lisbon European Council and an overall report to be presented to
the Feira European Council containing appropriate recommendations and proposals,
as well as an indication of whether or not Treaty amendment is judged necessary.
A first progress report, reflecting
the work carried forward by the Presidency, together with the Secretary-General/High
Representative, within the General Affairs Council was presented to the
Lisbon European Council. The European Council of Lisbon welcomed the progress
already achieved and in particular the fact that the interim bodies had
been established and had started to function effectively and that the Council
had identified a process for elaborating the headline goal and identifying
national contributions so as to meet the military capability target.
The European Council in Lisbon looked
forward to the further work that the Presidency, together with the Secretary-General/High
Representative, would pursue in the Council and to the Presidency's overall
report to the Feira European Council, including proposals on the involvement
of third countries in EU military crisis management and the further development
of the EU's relationship with NATO.
The Lisbon European Council furthermore
appreciated what had been achieved in the non-military crisis management
track and invited the Council to establish by, or at, Feira a Committee
for Civilian Crisis Management.
Since then, work has been carried forward
on all aspects of military and non-military crisis management and substantive
progress has been made, in particular with the identification of appropriate
arrangements for the participation of third countries to EU military crisis
management, as well as of principles and modalities for developing EU-NATO
relations. The headline goal has been further elaborated; a committee for
civilian aspects of crisis management has been set up; a coordinating mechanism,
fully interacting with the Commission services, has been established at
the Council Secretariat; the study to define concrete targets in the area
of civilian aspects of crisis management has been concluded; concrete targets
for civilian police have been identified.
The Presidency submits herewith its
overall report to the Feira European Council covering, in Chapter II, the
military aspects and, in Chapter III, the non-military aspects of crisis
management. Work has also been carried out on conflict prevention. The
usefulness of finding ways of improving the coherence and effectiveness
of the EU action in the field of conflict prevention has been recognised.
In the course of the work during the
Presidency on the strengthening of military and non-military crisis management
and conflict prevention, the importance has been underlined of ensuring
an extensive relationship in crisis management by the Union between
the military and civilian fields, as well as cooperation between the
EU rapidly-evolving crisis management capacity and the UN, OSCE and the
Council of Europe.
In presenting this report, the Presidency
has taken note of the fact that Denmark has recalled Protocol No 5 to the
Amsterdam Treaty on the position of Denmark.
Elaboration of the Headline and the collective capabilities goals
Concerning the development of the Headline
and the collective capabilities goals, the General Affairs Council, reinforced
with Ministers of Defence, concluded at its meeting of 20 March that the
"Food for thought" paper on the "Elaboration of the Headline Goal", including
the timetable set out therein leading to a Capabilities Commitment Conference
to be convened by the end of 2000, constitutes a basis for future work
to be conducted by the competent bodies.
The General Affairs Council, at its
session of 13 June, with the participation of Ministers of Defence, approved
the work carried out by the Interim Military Body and forwarded through
the IPSC, up to the "First Seminar of National Experts in Defence Planning"
held in Brussels on 22-24 May 2000. The Council, inviting the competent
bodies to continue on that basis, adopted the following guidelines for
Recommendations on the institutional development of the new permanent political
and military bodies related to the CESDP within the EU
The development of the Headline and
collective capabilities goals, which have been agreed at the European Council
in Helsinki, should be conducted by the 15, in accordance with the decision-making
autonomy of the EU as well as the requirements regarding military efficiency.
The Interim Military Body, with the
political guidance of the IPSC, will propose the elements which will encompass
the Headline Goal.
In order to do this, the Interim Military
Body will identify the capabilities necessary for the EU to respond to
the full range of the Petersberg Tasks.
In elaborating the Headline and collective
capabilities goals by drawing on Member States contributions, the IMB,
including representatives from capitals, will also call meetings with DSACEUR
and NATO experts in order to draw on NATO’s military expertise on the requirements
of the Headline and collective capabilities goals.
In this connection, transparency and
dialogue between the EU and NATO will in addition be provided by the Ad
Hoc Working Group on the capabilities goal provided for in Appendix 2.
The Headline Goal requirements agreed
by the IMB at CHODs level will, after endorsement by the Council, be the
basis for the Member States in considering their initial offers of national
contributions to the Headline Goal. These contributions will be examined
by the Interim Military Body. This process must be concluded before the
convening of the Capability Commitment Conference.
It will be important to ensure coherence,
for those Member States concerned, with NATO’s defence planning process
and the Planning and Review Process.
In accordance with the determination
expressed at Helsinki and Lisbon, once the needs and resources available
have been identified, Member States will announce, at the Capability Commitment
Conference, their commitments with a view to enabling the EU to fulfil
the Headline Goal and the collective capabilities goals. It will be also
important to create a review mechanism for measuring progress towards the
achievement of those goals.
The European Union will encourage third
countries to contribute through supplementary commitments. In order to
enable those countries to contribute to improving European military capabilities,
appropriate arrangements will be made by the incoming presidency regarding
the Capabilities Commitment Conference. These arrangements will take into
account the capabilities of the six non-EU European NATO members. The offers
of capabilities already made by Turkey, Poland, the Czech Republic and
Norway are welcomed.
The interim political and military
bodies were established on 1 March 2000. In the light of the experience
gained since their establishment, work has been carried out on the institutional
development of the new permanent political and military bodies, in accordance
with the Helsinki conclusions. Further work is under way, in order to ensure
as soon as possible the start of the permanent phase and of the EU operational
capacity for crisis management.
I.Proposals on appropriate arrangements
to be concluded by the Council on modalities of consultation and/or participation
that will allow the third States concerned to contribute to EU military
Work has been carried forward on
the modalities of consultation and/or participation concerning the non-EU
European NATO members and other countries who are candidates for accession
to the EU.
In this context, the aim has been
to identify, in accordance with the Helsinki conclusions, arrangements
for dialogue, consultation and cooperation on issues related to crisis
management ensuring the decision-making autonomy of the EU. These arrangements
will provide for the interim period meetings with the abovementioned countries,
which will take place within a single inclusive structure and will supplement
the meetings held as part of the reinforced political dialogue on CFSP
matters. Within this structure there will be exchanges with the non-EU
NATO European members when the subject matter requires it. For the permanent
phase, arrangements will take into account the different needs arising
in the routine phase and in the operational phase. The outcome of the Council
deliberations is contained in Appendix 1 to this report.
Exchanges took place on 11 May 2000
between the EU Member States' Political Directors and their counterparts
of the non-EU NATO European members and other candidate countries as well
as between the EU Member States' Political Directors and their counterparts
of the non-EU NATO European members.
Russia, Ukraine, other European States
engaged in political dialogue with the Union and other interested States,
may be invited to take part in EU-led operations. In this context, the
EU welcomes the interest shown by Canada.
The French Presidency is invited,
together with the Secretary General/High Representative, to carry forward
further work within the General Affairs Council in order to make initial
proposals to the Nice European Council on appropriate arrangements for
consultation and/or participation to allow these other prospective partners
to contribute to EU-led military crisis management.
Proposals on principles for consultation with NATO on military issues and
recommendations on developing modalities for EU/NATO relations, to permit
cooperation on the appropriate military response to a crisis
The Council has identified the principles
on the basis of which consultation and cooperation with NATO should be
developed. As to modalities, the Council has recommended that the EU should
propose to NATO the creation of four "ad hoc working groups" between the
EU and NATO on the issues which have been identified in that context: security
issues, capabilities goals, modalities enabling EU access to NATO assets
and capabilities and the definition of permanent arrangements for EU-NATO
The outcome of the Council deliberations
is contained in Appendix 2 to this report.
Indication of whether or not Treaty amendment is judged necessary
The existing provisions of the TEU
define the questions relating to the security of the Union, including the
progressive framing of a common defence policy as part of the Common Foreign
and Security Policy governed by Title V of the Treaty. On this basis, the
Council has decided to establish the interim Political and Security Committee
and the Interim Military Body, and to reinforce the Council Secretariat
with military experts seconded from Member States. Article 17 TEU expressly
includes the Petersberg tasks in the CFSP. The Presidency took note of
the opinion of the Council Legal Service the conclusion of which reads
"The Council’s Legal Service is of
the opinion that the conclusions of the Cologne and Helsinki European Councils
regarding European security and defence policy can be implemented without
it being legally necessary to amend the Treaty on European Union. However,
such amendments would be necessary if the intention is to transfer the
Council’s decision-making powers to a body made up of officials, or to
amend the Treaty’s provisions regarding the WEU. Furthermore, it is for
Member States to determine whether amendments to the Treaty would be politically
desirable or operationally appropriate."
The Presidency suggests that the
issue of Treaty revision should continue to be examined between the Feira
and Nice European Councils.
ASPECTS OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT
The Presidency has, together with the
Secretary General/High Representative, responded as a matter of priority
to the Helsinki European Council's invitation to carry work forward on
all aspects of civilian crisis management, as defined in Annex 2 to Annex
IV to the Helsinki conclusions.
The aim of this work has been to enhance
and better coordinate the Union's and the Members States' non-military
crisis management response tools, with special emphasis on a rapid reaction
capability. This will also improve the EU's contribution to crisis management
operations led by international and regional organisations.
As a concrete result of this intensive
work, the following measures have been taken:
A Committee for civilian aspects of crisis management has been set up by
a Council decision adopted on 22 May 2000. The Committee held its first
meeting on 16 June 2000.
A coordinating mechanism, fully interacting with the Commission services,
has been set up at the Council Secretariat. Further developing the inventory
of Member States and Union resources relevant for non-military crisis management,
it has, as a first priority, established a database on civilian police
capabilities in order to maintain and share information, to propose capabilities
initiatives and to facilitate the definition of concrete targets for EU
Member States collective non-military response. The coordinating mechanism
has further developed its close cooperation with the interim Situation
Centre/Crisis Cell established by the Secretary General/High Representative.
A study (Appendix 3), drawing on experience from recent and current crises,
on the expertise of the Member States and on the results of the seminar
on civilian crisis management in Lisbon on 3-4 April 2000, has been carried
out to define concrete targets in the area of civilian aspects of crisis
management. This study identifies priorities on which the EU will focus
its coordinated efforts in a first phase, without excluding the use of
all the other tools available to the Union and to Member States.
Concrete targets for civilian police capabilities have been identified
and are set out in Appendix 4. In particular, Member States should, cooperating
voluntarily, as a final objective by 2003 be able to provide up to 5000
police officers for international missions across the range of conflict
prevention and crisis management operations and in response to the specific
needs at the different stages of these operations. Within the target for
overall EU capabilities, Member States undertake to be able to identify
and deploy, within 30 days, up to 1 000 police officers. Furthermore, work
will be pursued to develop EU guidelines and references for international
In addition to these measures, the Council
has received and is examining the Commission's proposal for a Council Regulation
creating a Rapid Reaction Facility to support EU activities as outlined
in the Helsinki Report.
The French Presidency is invited, together
with the Secretary General/High Representative, to carry work forward within
the General Affairs Council on strengthening the Common European Security
and Defence Policy. The French Presidency is invited to report to the European
Council in Nice, in particular on:
the elaboration of the headline goal and the collective capabilities goal
agreed at Helsinki, including results reached at the Capabilities Commitment
Conference to be convened before Nice;
the establishment of the permanent political and military structures to
be put in place as soon as possible after the Nice European Council;
the inclusion in the EU of the appropriate functions of the WEU in the
field of the Petersberg tasks;
the implementation of the Feira decisions on :
the development and the implementation of EU capabilities in civilian aspects
of crisis management, including the definition of concrete targets.
the arrangements that will allow consultations
with and participation of third countries in EU-led military crisis management;
the development of the arrangements
ensuring consultation and cooperation with NATO in military crisis management
on the basis of the work undertaken in the relevant EU-NATO "ad hoc working
The issue of Treaty revision should
continue to be examined between the Feira and Nice European Councils.
The Secretary General/High Representative
and the Commission are invited to submit to the Nice European Council,
as a basis for further work, concrete recommendations on how to improve
the coherence and the effectiveness of the European Union action in the
field of conflict prevention, fully taking into account and building upon
existing instruments, capabilities and policy guidelines.
ARRANGEMENTS TO BE
CONCLUDED BY THE COUNCIL ON MODALITIES OF CONSULTATION AND/OR PARTICIPATION
THAT WILL ALLOW THE NON-EU EUROPEAN NATO MEMBERS
AND OTHER COUNTRIES WHICH ARE
CANDIDATES FOR ACCESSION TO THE EU TO CONTRIBUTE TO EU MILITARY CRISIS
In the Helsinki European Council Conclusions
the Portuguese Presidency is "...invited to report to the European Council
in Feira on the progress made, including (...) proposals on appropriate
arrangements to be concluded by the Council on modalities of consultation
and/or participation that will allow the third States concerned to contribute
to EU military crisis management".
The Union will ensure the necessary
dialogue, consultation and cooperation with non-EU European NATO members
and other countries who are candidates for accession to the EU on EU-led
Appropriate arrangements will be established
for dialogue and information on issues related to security and defence
policy and crisis management.
There will be full respect for the decision-making
autonomy of the EU and its single institutional framework.
There will be a single, inclusive structure
in which all the 15countries concerned (the non-EU European NATO members
and the candidates for accession to the EU) can enjoy the necessary dialogue,
consultation and cooperation with the EU.
There will, within this structure, be
exchanges with the non-EU European NATO members where the subject matter
requires it, such as on questions concerning the nature and functioning
of EU-led operations using NATO assets and capabilities.
Modalities for the participation of
non-EU European NATO members and candidate countries, to be established
for the permanent phase, will need to take into account the different needs
arising in different situations:
routine non-crisis phase:
mechanism for a regular dialogue;
For the interim period
operational phase, including two
pre-operational phase when options for action are considered, in which
dialogue and consultations will be intensified;
operational phase "stricto sensu", which starts when the Council takes
the decision to launch an operation, and an ad hoc Committee of Contributors
is set up.
Full account should be taken of the
role of the Secretary General/High Representative in the EU's CFSP and
For the permanent phase
Until the implementation of the modalities
established for the permanent phase, meetings with the 15 countries concerned
(non-EU European NATO members and other candidates for accession to the
EU) will take place within the single inclusive structure referred to in
paragraph 5. The choice of the appropriate form and modalities will be
based on considerations of pragmatism and efficiency, depending on the
circumstances, subject-matter and needs.
A minimum of two meetings in EU+15 format
will be organised in each Presidency on ESDP matters. These will supplement
the meetings held as part of the reinforced political dialogue on CFSP
Within this framework, a minimum of
two meetings will be organised with the six non-EU European NATO members
(in EU+6 format) in each Presidency. Additional exchanges will be organised
if the need arises upon decision by the Council or the IPSC.
A meeting at Ministerial level within
the framework referred to in paragraph 8, will be organised in each Presidency
with the 15 and with the 6.
The exchanges provided for in paragraphs
9 and 10 will cover the elaboration of the headline and capability goals
as well, so as fully to inform non-EU members of ongoing work on the list
of necessary means. In order to enable those countries to contribute to
improving European military capabilities, appropriate arrangements will
be made by the incoming Presidency regarding the capabilities pledging
conference. These arrangements will take into account the capabilities
of the 6 non-EU European NATO members.
Exchanges on issues related to security
and defence policy and, in particular, on progress within the EU in establishing
its crisis-management capabilities, will take place during the routine
During the routine phase there should
be, in the course of each semester,
PSC will play a leading role in the
implementation of these arrangements, which should also include exchanges
at military level.
regular meetings in EU+15 format, at the appropriate level;
at least two meetings with the participation of the non-EU European NATO
members in EU+6 format;
additional meetings will be organised if the need arises upon decision
by the Council or the PSC.
Arrangements for Ministerial meetings
during the permanent phase will be based upon the experience gained during
the interim phase.
The exchanges will facilitate participation
of the concerned countries to EU-led operations.
phase "stricto sensu"
In the event of a crisis, dialogue and
consultation will be intensified.
When the possibility of an EU-led military
crisis management operation is under consideration, these consultations
will provide a framework for exchanges of views and discussion on any related
security concerns raised by the countries concerned. Where the EU recourse
to NATO assets is under active consideration, particular attention will
be given to consultation with the six non-EU European NATO members.
When deciding on the military option,
the EU will address participation of non-EU NATO members and other countries
which are candidates to accession to the EU according to the provisions
agreed in Helsinki:
"Upon a decision by the Council
to launch an operation, the non-EU European NATO members will participate
if they so wish, in the event of an operation requiring recourse to NATO
assets and capabilities. They will, on a decision by the Council, be invited
to take part in operations where the EU does not use NATO assets.
Other countries who are candidates
for accession to the EU may also be invited by the Council to take part
in EU-led operations once the Council has decided to launch such an operation."
The operational phase will start when
the Council decides to launch a military crisis management operation. Those
non-EU European NATO members and countries candidates for accession which
have confirmed their participation in an EU-led operation by deploying
significant military forces, will have the same rights and obligations
as the EU participating Member States in the day to day conduct of that
An ad hoc committee of contributors
will be set up comprising all EU Member States and the other participating
countries for the day to day conduct of the operation. The Council/PSC
will be responsible for the political control and strategic direction of
the operation. For the military day to day conduct of the operation, functions
and roles of the MC and of the operation commander will be set out in the
The decision to end an operation
shall be taken by the Council after consultation between participating
states within the ad hoc committee of contributors.
The Council will formalise
the necessary arrangements in due time and will examine the options for
PRINCIPLES FOR CONSULTATION
WITH NATO ON MILITARY ISSUES
AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON DEVELOPING
MODALITIES FOR EU/NATO RELATIONS
The European Council in Helsinki
invited the Portuguese Presidency to report to the European Council in
Feira on the progress made, including "proposals on principles for consultation
with NATO on military issues and recommendations on developing modalities
for EU/NATO relations, to permit cooperation on the appropriate military
response to a crisis, as set out in Washington and at Cologne".
ISSUES AND MODALITIES FOR THE INTERIM
Development of consultation and cooperation
between the EU and NATO must take place in full respect of the autonomy
of EU decision-making.
The EU and NATO have undertaken further
to strengthen and develop their cooperation in military crisis-management
on the basis of shared values, equality and in a spirit of partnership.
The aim is to achieve full and effective consultation, cooperation and
transparency in order to identify and take rapid decisions on the most
appropriate military response to a crisis and to ensure efficient crisis-management.
In this context, EU-objectives in the field of military capabilities and
those arising, for those countries concerned, from NATO's Defence Capabilities
Initiative, will be mutually reinforcing.
While being mutually reinforcing in
crisis management, the EU and NATO are organisations of a different nature.
This will be taken into account in the arrangements concerning their relations
and in the assessment to be made by the EU of existing procedures governing
WEU-NATO relations with a view to their possible adaptation to an EU-NATO
Arrangements and modalities for relations
between the EU and NATO will reflect the fact that each Organisation will
be dealing with the other on an equal footing.
In the relations between the EU and
NATO as institutions, there will be no discrimination against any of the
Contacts with NATO (informal contacts
by SGs, briefings by the Portuguese Presidency at the NAC) have taken place
in accordance with the Helsinki definition for the initial phase in which
the EU-interim bodies have concentrated on establishing themselves. There
is now a need for a further evolution in EU-NATO relations.
The groundwork undertaken on these four
issues will pave the way for establishing permanent arrangements between
NATO and the EU. Our aim is that these should be ready at the same time
as the EU permanent structures are put in place after the Nice European
Security: EU efforts towards
finalising its own security arrangements (physical and personal security,
and work towards an EU security agreement) are an absolute priority. On
this basis, the Union will have to establish a dialogue with NATO to define
security arrangements between the two organisations. These discussions
should lead to an agreement, which will govern inter alia information exchange
and access by designated officials from the EU and its Member Statesto
NATO planning structures.
Defining capability goals: to
ensure that "these objectives and those arising, for those countries concerned,
from NATO’s Defence Capabilities Initiative (DCI) will be mutually reinforcing",
modalities for consultation on these issues will need to be established.
These modalities should permit the EU to draw, as needed, on NATO military
expertise, as the EU elaborates its headline goal by drawing on Member
State contributions. Having elaborated the headline and capability goals,
the EU, as agreed in Helsinki, will develop a method of consultation through
which these goals can be met and maintained, and through which national
contributions reflecting Member States’ political will and commitment towards
these goals can be defined by each Member State, with a regular review
of progress made. In addition, Member States would use existing defence
planning procedures including, as appropriate, those available in NATO
and the Planning and Review Process of the PfP.
Arrangements enabling the EU access
to NATO assets and capabilities (Berlin and Washington agreements):
Helsinki and Cologne defined two approaches to implementing EU operations:
with or without NATO assets. To use NATO assets, it is important to make
progress on defining together how this will work in practice in order to
draw up an agreement. This agreement should be ready by the time the EU
becomes operational. To make this possible, the EU looks forward to substantial
progress within NATO.
Defining permanent arrangements:
Following the Feira European Council, discussion will be needed to determine
the nature of the permanent arrangements, which will govern relations between
the EU and NATO. These arrangements should be based upon the principles
The Feira European Council should decide
to propose to NATO the creation of "ad hoc working groups" between the
EU and NATO for each of the issues mentioned above.
The "ad hoc working groups" would have
the following tasks:
for security issues: preparation of an EU-NATO security agreement;
for capability goals: the implementation of information exchange and discussion
with NATO on elaborating capability goals. It is understood that DSACEUR
could participate, as appropriate;
for modalities enabling EU access to NATO assets (Berlin and Washington
agreements): preparation of an agreement on the modalities for EU access
to NATO assets and capabilities as agreed at Washington (draft framework
agreement on Berlin Plus implementation). It is understood that DSACEUR
for the definition of permanent arrangements: defining the main parameters
of an EU/NATO agreement which would formalise structures and procedures
for consultation between the two organisations in times of crisis and non-crisis.
If, having regard to the principles
set above, new issues were to arise which were recognised as requiring
consultation between the EU and NATO, further "ad hoc working groups" could
On the EU side, the IPSC will
have a coordinating role for the work of the "ad hoc working groups", and
will be a focal point for dialogue.
STUDY ON CONCRETE TARGETS
ON CIVILIAN ASPECTS OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT
The European Council expressed its
determination to increase and improve the effectiveness of the Union's
capacity to respond to crises, including by actions in civilian areas.
This increased effectiveness could be used both in response to request
of a lead agency like the UN or the OSCE, or, where appropriate, in autonomous
The Union should seek to enhance
its capability in civilian aspects of crisis management in all relevant
areas, with the objective of improving its potential for saving human lives
in crisis situations, for maintaining basic public order, preventing further
escalation, facilitating the return to a peaceful, stable and self-sustainable
situation, for managing adverse effects on EU countries and for addressing
relevant problems of coordination. Particular attention could be paid to
those areas where the international community so far has demonstrated weaknesses.
It would provide "added value" as it would improve the Union's capacity
to react as well as the Union's capability to meet the requests of the
other lead organisations: they would be able to count – on a more systematic
basis – on a sizeable quantitative and qualitative contribution which could
represent the nucleus of some of their missions. This would, in turn, increase
the Union's visibility.
The reinforcement of the Union's
capabilities in civilian aspects of crisis management should, above all,
provide it with adequate means to face complex political crises by:
It has been agreed that the identification
of concrete targets should be premised on a pragmatic, bottom-up approach,
focusing on operational requirements, and reflecting the political concerns
of the European Council.
acting to prevent the eruption or escalation
consolidating peace and internal stability
in periods of transition.
ensuring complementarity between the
military and civilian aspects of crisis management covering the full range
of Petersberg tasks.
The inventories which have been drawn
up clearly show that Member States, the Union, or both have accumulated
considerable experience or have considerable resources in a large number
of areas, a number of which are resources already being used in development
cooperation. Fully taking into account, and building upon, existing
experiences, instruments and resources, the Union should as a matter of
priority concentrate its efforts on the areas where a rapid reaction is
most needed, and where the added value of an increased and coordinated
effort by the Union and Member States is most evident. This process could
be built outwards step-by-step to cover a wide range of limited as well
as complex civil crisis management operations. However, the identification
of priorities on which the EU will focus its coordinated efforts in a first
phase does by no means exclude the use of all other tools available to
the Union and to Member States.
The first priority area, identified
in the light of the crises Europe has had to face in recent times and is
still facing now, is police.
Concrete targets on police capabilities,
to be reached by 2003, have been established by Member States, cooperating
voluntarily within the framework of Article 12, fifth indent, of the TEU.
These concrete targets are elaborated in detail in Appendix 4 to the Presidency
STRENGTHENING OF THE RULE OF LAW
Intensified work on police must necessarily
be accompanied by work in other areas that are felt as necessary if a positive
outcome of a police mission is to be ensured. The area most specifically
concerned is assistance for the re-establishment of a judicial and penal
system. The following measures could be considered:
STRENGTHENING CIVILIAN ADMINISTRATION
(i) Member States could establish national
arrangements for selection of judges, prosecutors, penal experts and other
relevant categories within the judicial and penal system, to deploy at
short notice to peace support operations, and consider ways to train them
(ii) the EU could aim at promoting guidelines
for the selection and training of international judges and penal experts
in liaison with the United Nations and regional organisations (particularly
the Council of Europe and the OSCE);
(iii) the EU could consider ways of
supporting the establishment/renovation of infrastructures of local courts
and prisons as well as recruitment of local court personnel and prison
officers in the context of peace support operations.
Yet another area which it is necessary
to enhance, in order to succeed in supporting societies in transition,
is the area of civil administration.
(i) Member States could consider improving
the selection, training and deployment of civil administration experts
for duties in the re-establishment of collapsed administrative systems;
(ii) Member States could also consider
taking on the training of local civil administration officials in societies
In addition to the priority areas
mentioned before, Member States have identified civil protection, including
search and rescue in disaster relief operations. It is necessary to draw
a distinction between operations of civil protection within the framework
of crisis management operations, and other types of disaster relief
operations. The latter kind of operations have specific characteristics.
This being said, in crisis management
operations within CFSP, it should also be possible to resort to EU Member
States' tools and capabilities for civil protection.
Even though specific coordination
mechanisms already exist in the field of civil protection, it is felt that,
in the light of experience gleaned in recent major natural disasters, improvement
is needed and is possible.
Ideas aimed at ensuring a better
organisation of the Union's reaction, such as a lead-nation concept as
well as specialisation, have been put forward. Work currently under way
within the Council and involving experts in the field will permit the definition
of concrete targets also in this area.
Such concrete targets could be defined
in terms of human and material resources that each Member State could make
available, type of mandate and status of the operation for participating
countries as well as promotion of compatibility of equipment between Member
Improved coordination at EU level
can lead to an increased effectiveness and synergy in the Union's reaction.
Together with the definition of concrete targets by the European Council,
this will ensure tangible improvements in the Union's contribution to crisis
Further Work on Concrete Targets after Feira
The Committee for Civilian Aspects
of Crisis Management could work on the development and further elaboration
of the concrete targets set out by Feira European Council as well as on
areas going beyond the priority areas already identified. To this end,
the Committee should be integrated with experts from the relevant national
administrations, i.a. providing specialist advice on police, judicial and
penal aspects, civilian administration, humanitarian assistance as well
as the interface between crisis management and development cooperation.
Further work could also address the
identification of national capabilities with a view to reaching collective
targets, taking into account national areas of expertise/specialisation.
It is noted that the Commission will
submit shortly an operational inventory of actions already led by the Union
as well as proposals in the civil protection area.
CONCRETE TARGETS FOR
To develop police capabilities, Member
States, cooperating voluntarily within the framework of Article 12, fifth
indent, of the Treaty on European Union, have set themselves the following
concrete targets, to be reached by 2003.
The targets are related but highlight
different aspects of EU police capabilities. In this regard, the target
for rapid deployment capability (2) is defined as lying within the target
for overall EU capabilities (1).
OVERALL EU CAPABILITIES
Recognising the central role of police
in international crisis management operations, and the increasing need
for police officers for such operations, EU Member States undertake to
strengthen their capability to provide police officers for international
police operations to which they voluntarily decide to contribute. Member
States' contributions will take account of their own particular arrangements
for national policing and the type of police expertise which they can provide.
Strengthening their capabilities
in phases, EU Member States should, as a final objective, be able to provide
up to 5 000 police officers to international missions across the range
of crisis prevention and crisis management operations and in response to
the specific needs at the different stages of these operations. The current
total deployment of EU Member States is approximately 3 300 persons.
This will require the pre-identification
and training of a sufficiently large pool of police staff, covering all
fields of police work required internationally and taking into account
the comparative advantages as well as the specific constraints of Member
States’ police. It may also necessitate the reinforcement of mechanisms
for rotation and sufficient financial and logistical resources.
Member States will share national
experience with a view to producing specific recommendations on increasing
the number of police officers available for international missions (looking
inter alia at a greater use of retiring or recently retired officers and
the freeing-up of police capability through greater involvement of experts
from adjacent fields). In this respect, due consideration will be given
to the possibility of putting a greater emphasis on the training of local
police, as this can contribute to reduce the size and period of international
The target on overall EU police capabilities
may be extended to cover also international support to local justice and
penal systems, the deficiency of which in some crises can have a significant
impact on the credibility and effectiveness of an international police
RAPID DEPLOYMENT CAPABILITY
The EU police deployment can either
be in response to a request from an international lead organisation, in
particular the United Nations or the OSCE, or can constitute an EU autonomous
police operation, possibly as part of a larger EU-led crisis management
operation, once the necessary EU planning and logistical framework has
Within the target for overall EU
capabilities, Member States undertake to be able to identify and deploy,
within 30 days, police able to implement operations and missions of police
advice, training, monitoring as well as executive policing:
Experience has shown that the most demanding
of crisis management tasks may require the deployment of up to 1 000 EU
Member State police within 30 days. For each of these generic target missions,
further elaboration by proper Council instances will be needed.
in order to prevent or mitigate internal
crises and conflicts (such as e.g. MINUGUA in Guatemala);
in non-stabilised situations, such as
e.g. immediate post-conflict situations, requiring robust forces able to
restore law and order; (such as e.g. UNMIK/KFOR in Kosovo and UNTAET in
in support of local police, ensuring
respect for basic human rights standards (such as e.g. WEU/MAPE in Albania,
WEUPOL in Mostar and ONUSAL in El Salvador), and, where international police
performs an executive role, allowing the rapid return of responsibility
for law enforcement to local police (such as e.g. OSCE/KPSS in Kosovo).
Given the specific requirements on
international police performing executive tasks in non-stabilised situations,
and in particular during the transition from initial military command to
subsequent civil command, special attention will be given to the proposal
for the development of robust, rapidly deployable, flexible and interoperable
European Union integrated police units, as well as to the possibility
of a smaller number of Member States cooperating to build capabilities
in this specific field.
In order to reach the deployment
time target, Member States and the EU will further strengthen, as appropriate,
the capacity to contribute with the required expertise to an advance team
headed by the international lead organisation - as well as, in due course,
deploy EU advance teams of experienced police experts in charge of assessing
the risks of, defining, planning and establishing an EU-led police mission.
In this context, the EU should be able to contribute with, and deploy,
legal experts in order to prepare for support to local judicial and penal
systems, as well as experts in engineering, logistical and administrative
Member States will exchange information
and experience on methods of creating rapidly deployable police forces,
inter alia through the use of pre-identified police forces which, while
actively taking part in national police work, would be available at short
notice for police missions.
RAISING STANDARDS FOR INTERNATIONAL POLICE MISSIONS
Member States and the EU can play
a catalysing role in raising standards for international police operations,
including within and through the United Nations and the OSCE. Therefore
the EU and its Member States will initiate work in view of the definition
of an EU concept for international police operations. This work will be
carried out in close cooperation with UN/DPKO, on the basis of existing
UN guidelines and without duplicating work being carried out in the UN,
and will draw on Member State and EU police expertise. First discussions
on this subject have identified the need, inter alia, to:
define the categories of police officers and experts most appropriate for
the different policing tasks, including priorities for deployment, on the
basis of scenarios or illustrative profiles covering the role of police
across the range of, and at the different phases of, crisis prevention
and crisis management operations, and taking into account the need for
flexibility of intervention;
contribute to the development of a general concept of executive policing,
notably as regards the interaction between military forces and police forces
in post-conflict situations where both are deployed in parallel;
contribute to the clarification of the legislative framework in which international
police missions operate;
contribute to the definition of clear international mandates for police
The development of an EU concept
would facilitate the drawing up of EU guidelines and references for international
policing, including on rules of engagement, as well as contribute to the
further refinement of the categories of police and experts in Member State
and EU databases.
Member States and the EU will also,
in the framework of the cooperation in the field of justice and home affairs,
and taking into account requirements of different types of police missions,
continue efforts to define standard selection criteria and basic training
programmes, based on, and compatible with, existing UN, OSCE and Council
of Europe standards, in order to ensure that police sent by EU Member States
on international missions meet high standards and that the pool of pre-identified
and trained police officers is sufficiently large to meet the capability
and deployment targets defined above. These efforts will take into account
the Lisbon seminar organised in this context on 29-31 May 2000 and earlier
work on police training for peacekeeping missions carried out within the
framework of the European Union and will reflect the central role of the
EU and its Member States in contributing to improved international policing
The specific concrete targets are
the expression of the political will and commitment of Member States. The
targets will be further elaborated by the appropriate Council instances.
A method will be developed through which these phased targets can be met
and maintained through voluntary contributions. The comparative advantages
of national police taking into account e.g. national rotational requirements
and the possible use of retirees, can be defined by each Member State,
with a regular review of progress made. This work will be carried out in
close cooperation with police experts.
General information on pre-identified
police capabilities, their readiness, as well as on specific national expertise,
in particular for advance teams, will be fed into the police database established
at the Council Secretariat as part of the Coordinating Mechanism set up
following the conclusions of the European Council in Helsinki. Further
work will be undertaken concerning national arrangements, including on
specific information on pre-identified police capabilities and single national
The European Council in Helsinki
set the objective of developing the EU's contributions to international
organisations, in particular the UN and OSCE, as well as its capabilities
for EU autonomous actions. To that end the EU will coordinate closely with
the United Nations Department of Peace Keeping Operations (UN/DPKO), the
OSCE, notably the REACT Task Force, and with the Council of Europe and
Member States contact points, in order to ensure that EU efforts and those
of these organisations are compatible and mutually reinforcing, to avoid
duplication as well as to facilitate the exchange of information relating
to new police missions.
In addition, a detailed study on
the feasibility and implications of planning, launching and leading autonomous
EU missions will be carried out.