- We, the members of the European Council, are resolved that the European Union shall play
its full role on the international stage. To that end, we intend to give the European
Union the necessary means and capabilities to assume its responsibilities regarding a
common European policy on security and defence. The work undertaken on the initiative of
the German Presidency and the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam permit us today
to take a decisive step forward.
In pursuit of our Common Foreign and Security Policy objectives and the progressive
framing of a common defence policy, we are convinced that the Council should have the
ability to take decisions on the full range of conflict prevention and crisis management
tasks defined in the Treaty on European Union, the "Petersberg tasks". To this
end, the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed up by credible
military forces, the means to decide to use them, and a readiness to do so, in order to
respond to international crises without prejudice to actions by NATO. The EU will thereby
increase its ability to contribute to international peace and security in accordance with
the principles of the UN Charter.
- We are convinced that to fully assume its tasks in the field of conflict prevention and
crisis management the European Union must have at its disposal the appropriate
capabilities and instruments. We therefore commit ourselves to further develop more
effective European military capabilities from the basis of existing national, bi-national
and multinational capabilities and to strengthen our own capabilities for that purpose.
This requires the maintenance of a sustained defence effort, the implementation of the
necessary adaptations and notably the reinforcement of our capabilities in the field of
intelligence, strategic transport, command and control. This also requires efforts to
adapt, exercise and bring together national and multinational European forces.
We also recognise the need to undertake sustained efforts to strengthen the industrial and
technological defence base, which we want to be competitive and dynamic. We are determined
to foster the restructuring of the European defence industries amongst those States
involved. With industry we will therefore work towards closer and more efficient defence
industry collaboration. We will seek further progress in the harmonisation of military
requirements and the planning and procurement of arms, as Member States consider
- We welcome the results of the NATO Washington summit as regards NATO support for the
process launched by the EU and its confirmation that a more effective role for the
European Union in conflict prevention and crisis management will contribute to the
vitality of a renewed Alliance. In implementing this process launched by the EU, we shall
ensure the development of effective mutual consultation, cooperation and transparency
between the European Union and NATO.
We want to develop an effective EU-led crisis management in which NATO members, as well as
neutral and non-allied members, of the EU can participate fully and on an equal footing in
the EU operations.
We will put in place arrangements that allow non-EU European allies and partners to take
part to the fullest possible extent in this endeavour.
- We therefore approve and adopt the report prepared by the German Presidency, which
reflects the consensus among the Member States.
- We are now determined to launch a new step in the construction of the European Union. To
this end we task the General Affairs Council to prepare the conditions and the measures
necessary to achieve these objectives, including the definition of the modalities for the
inclusion of those functions of the WEU which will be necessary for the EU to fulfil its
new responsibilities in the area of the Petersberg tasks. In this regard, our aim is to
take the necessary decisions by the end of the year 2000. In that event, the WEU as an
organisation would have completed its purpose. The different status of Member States with
regard to collective defence guarantees will not be affected. The Alliance remains the
foundation of the collective defence of its Member States.
We therefore invite the Finnish Presidency to take the work forward within the General
Affairs Council on the basis of this declaration and the report of the Presidency to the
European Council meeting in Cologne. We look forward to a progress report by the Finnish
Presidency to the Helsinki European Council meeting.
Presidency Report on Strengthening of the common European policy on security and
The Treaty of Amsterdam which entered into force on 1 May provides for the enhancement of
the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), including the progressive framing of a
common defence policy as provided in Article 17 of the TEU. The Treaty also provides for
the possibility of integrating the WEU into the EU, should the European Council so
The European Council in Vienna welcomed the new impetus given to the
debate on a common European policy in security and defence. It considered that in order
for the EU to be in a position to play its full role on the international stage, the CFSP
must be backed by credible operational capabilities. Furthermore, it welcomed the
Franco-British declaration made on 4 December 1998 in St. Malo. The European Council
invited the German Presidency to pursue this debate and agreed to examine the question
again at the European Council in Cologne. To this end Foreign Ministers discussed the
subject at their informal meeting in Reinhartshausen on 13/14 March and at the General
Affairs Council on 17 May.
The NATO Washington Summit welcomed the new impetus given to the strengthening of a
common European policy on security and defence by the Amsterdam Treaty and confirmed that
a stronger European role will help contribute to the vitality of the Alliance for the 21st
century. The NATO summit furthermore stressed that the development of a CFSP, as called
for in the Amsterdam Treaty, would be compatible with the common security and defence
policy established within the framework of the Washington Treaty. This process will lead
to more complementarity, cooperation and synergy.
At the WEU Ministerial Council on 10 and 11 May this question was also discussed on the
basis of the informal reflection which was initiated at the Rome Ministerial Council.
Member States will undertake efforts in line with the conclusions of the ongoing WEU Audit
of European defence capabilities.
- Guiding Principles
The aim is to strengthen the CFSP by the development of a common European policy on
security and defence. This requires a capacity for autonomous action backed up by credible
military capabilities and appropriate decision making bodies. Decisions to act would be
taken within the framework of the CFSP according to appropriate procedures in order to
reflect the specific nature of decisions in this field. The Council of the European Union
would thus be able to take decisions on the whole range of political, economic and
military instruments at its disposal when responding to crisis situations. The European
Union is committed to preserve peace and strengthen international security in accordance
with the principles of the UN Charter as well as the principles of the Helsinki Final Act
and the objectives of the Charter of Paris, as provided for in Article 11 of the
The Amsterdam Treaty incorporates the Petersberg tasks ("humanitarian
and rescue tasks, peace-keeping tasks and tasks of combat forces in crisis management,
including peace-making") into the Treaty.
The focus of our efforts therefore would be to assure that the European Union has at
its disposal the necessary capabilities (including military capabilities) and appropriate
structures for effective EU decision making in crisis management within the scope of the
Petersberg tasks. This is the area where a European capacity to act is required most
urgently. The development of an EU military crisis management capacity is to be seen as an
activity within the framework of the CFSP (Title V of the TEU) and as a part of the
progressive framing of a common defence policy in accordance with Article 17 of the
The Atlantic Alliance remains the foundation of the collective defence of its Members.
The commitments under Article 5 of the Washington Treaty and Article V of the Brussels
Treaty will in any event be preserved for the Member States party to these Treaties. The
policy of the Union shall not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence
policy of certain Member States.
- Decision Making
As regards EU decision making in the field of security and defence policy, necessary
arrangements must be made in order to ensure political control and strategic direction of
EU-led Petersberg operations so that the EU can decide and conduct such operations
Furthermore, the EU will need a capacity for analysis of situations,
sources of intelligence, and a capability for relevant strategic planning.
This may require in particular:
- regular (or ad hoc) meetings of the General Affairs Council, as appropriate including
- a permanent body in Brussels (Political and Security Committee) consisting of
representatives with pol/mil expertise;
- an EU Military Committee consisting of Military Representatives making recommendations
to the Political and Security Committee;
- a EU Military Staff including a Situation Centre;
- other resources such as a Satellite Centre, Institute for Security Studies.
Further institutional questions may need to be addressed.
Decisions relating to crisis management tasks, in particular decisions having military or
defence implications will be taken in accordance with Article 23 of the Treaty on European
Union. Member States will retain in all circumstances the right to decide if and when
their national forces are deployed.
As regards military capabilities, Member States need to develop further forces (including
headquarters) that are suited also to crisis management operations, without any
unnecessary duplication. The main characteristics include: deployability, sustainability,
interoperability, flexibility and mobility.
For the effective implementation of EU-led operations the European Union will have to
determine, according to the requirements of the case, whether it will conduct:
- EU-led operations using NATO assets and capabilities or
- EU-led operations without recourse to NATO assets and capabilities.
For EU-led operations without recourse to NATO assets and capabilities, the EU could use
national or multinational European means pre-identified by Member States. This will
require either the use of national command structures providing multinational
representation in headquarters or drawing on existing command structures within
multinational forces. Further arrangements to enhance the capacity of European
multinational and national forces to respond to crises situations will be needed.
For EU-led operations having recourse to NATO assets and capabilities, including European
command arrangements, the main focus should be on the following aspects:
Modalities of participation and cooperation
- Implementation of the arrangements based on the Berlin decisions of 1996 and the
Washington NATO summit decisions of April 1999.
- The further arrangements set out by NATO at its summit meeting in Washington should
address in particular:
- assured EU access to NATO planning capabilities able to contribute
to military planning for EU-led operations;
- the presumption of availability to the EU of pre-identified NATO capabilities and common
assets for use in EU-led operations.
The successful creation of a European policy on security and defence will
require in particular:
- the possibility of all EU Member States, including non-allied members, to participate
fully and on an equal footing in EU operations;
- satisfactory arrangements for European NATO members who are not EU Member States to
ensure their fullest possible involvement in EU-led operations, building on existing
consultation arrangements within WEU;
- arrangements to ensure that all participants in an EU-led operation will have equal
rights in respect of the conduct of that operation, without prejudice to the principle of
the EU's decision-making autonomy, notably the right of the Council to discuss and decide
matters of principle and policy;
- the need to ensure the development of effective mutual consultation, cooperation and
transparency between NATO and the EU;
- the consideration of ways to ensure the possibility for WEU Associate Partners to be